Errors in effect estimate calculations or data synthesis

This problem is addressed in PRISMA 2020, AMSTAR-2, ROBIS and MECIR. Calculating errors, choice of statistical model and inappropriate summary statistics can mean that the pooled summary from the systematic review does not accurately reflect the summary of the included trials.

Articles that support this problem:

Basic calculating errors in systematic reviews

2013 : Obesity surgery

Methodological review showed correct absolute effect size estimates for time-to-event outcomes in less than one-third of cancer-related systematic reviews

2019 : Journal of clinical epidemiology

Frequent inappropriate use of unweighted summary statistics in systematic reviews of pathogen genotypes or genogroups

2020 : Journal of clinical epidemiology

Several reasons explained the variation in the results of 22 meta-analyses addressing the same question

2019 : Journal of clinical epidemiology

Disagreements in meta-analyses using outcomes measured on continuous or rating scales: observer agreement study

2009 : Bmj

Incorrect inclusion of individual studies and methodological flaws in systematic review and meta-analysis

2014 : British journal of general practice

Methodological concerns about a systematic review and meta-analysis of maternal active smoking during pregnancy and low birth weight.

2019 : Nicotine and tobacco research

Errors in systematic reviews: an example of computed tomography screening for lung cancer

2014 : European journal of cancer prevention

A quality assessment of systematic reviews on telerehabilitation: what does the evidence tell us?

2015 : Annali dell'istituto superiore di sanita

Cluster Randomised Trials in Cochrane Reviews: Evaluation of Methodological and Reporting Practice

2016 : Plos one

Cochrane has not consistently followed the COPE guidelines

2020 : European journal of clinical investigation

Increased risks for random errors are common in outcomes graded as high certainty of evidence

2019 : Journal of clinical epidemiology

Systematic review adherence to methodological or reporting quality

2017 : Systematic reviews

Non-communicable diseases research output in the Eastern Mediterranean region: an overview of systematic reviews

2020 : Bmc medical research methodology

Dealing with substantial heterogeneity in Cochrane reviews. Cross-sectional study

2011 : Bmc medical research methodology

Methodological quality and descriptive characteristics of prosthodontic‐related systematic reviews

2013 : Journal of oral rehabilitation

The landscape of systematic reviews in urology (1998 to 2015): an assessment of methodological quality

2017 : Bju international

Systematic Reviews in Craniofacial Trauma—Strengths and Weaknesses

2016 : Annals of plastic surgery

Quality assessment of systematic reviews on periodontal regeneration in humans

2013 : Journal of periodontology

Trust, but verify. The errors and misinterpretations in the Cochrane analysis by O. J. Storebo and colleagues on the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate for the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD

2016 : Zeitschrift fur kinder-und jugendpsychiatrie und psychotherapie

Can Cochrane Reviews in controversial areas be biased? A sensitivity analysis based on the protocol of a Systematic Cochrane Review on low-level laser therapy in osteoarthritis

2005 : Photomedicine and laser therapy

A case study of a retracted systematic review on interactive health communication applications: impact on media, scientists, and patients

2005 : Journal of medical internet research

How objective are systematic reviews? Differences between reviews on complementary medicine

2003 : Journal of the royal society of medicine

Methodological quality of systematic reviews and clinical trials on women's health published in a Brazilian evidence-based health journal

2013 : Clinics

Reporting and methodologic quality of Cochrane Neonatal review group systematic reviews

2009 : Bmc pediatrics

Systematic Reviews of Anesthesiologic Interventions Reported as Statistically Significant: Problems with Power, Precision, and Type 1 Error Protection

2015 : Anesthesia & analgesia

Comment on: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of the Association Between Anti-hypertensive Classes and the Risk of Falls Among Older Adults

2019 : Drugs and aging

Reliability of the Evidence Addressing Treatment of Corneal Diseases: A Summary of Systematic Reviews

2019 : Jama ophthalmology

RE: Physical Activity and the Risk of Liver Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies and a Bias Analysis

2020 : Journal of the national cancer institute

The methodological quality and clinical applicability of meta-analyses on probiotics in 2020: A cross-sectional study

2021 : Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy

Methodological issues in meta-analyses of observational studies: the need for attention to the details

2022 : British journal of anaesthesia

Quality of systematic reviews on timing of complementary feeding for early childhood allergy prevention

2023 : Bmc medical research methodology